Embedded systems on a chip (Soc) and use of VLSI Design | System on Chip

Embedded Systems in Tamil

VLSI chip

  • Integration of high-level components.
  • Possess gate-level sophistication in circuits above that of the counter, register, multiplier, floating point operation unit and ALU.


System on chip (SoC)

  • SoC is a system on a VLSI chip that has all needed analog as well as digital circuits, processors and software, for example, single-chip mobile phone.

New Innovation Example Mobile phone on SoC

 Port Memory

Port Memory

System on Chip


  • Multiple processors
  • Memories
  • Multiple standard source solutions (IP Cores)
  • Logic and analog units

Embedding Microprocessor

  • General Purpose Processor (GPP) microprocessor can be embedded on a VSLI chip.
 Embedding Microprocessor

Embedding Microprocessor

Embedding an ASIP - Application-specific instruction set processor

  • Processor with instruction set designed for specific application on a VLSI chip for example, microcontroller, DSP, IO, media, network or another domain specific processor Embedding a Microcontroller core
    • 68HC11xx,
    • HC12xx,
    • HC16xx8051,
    • 80251 PIC 16F84 or
    • 16C76, 16F876 and PIC18Microcontroller
    • Enhancements of ARM9/ARM7 ARM
    • Cortex M3 from Philips, Samsung and ST Microelectronics

Embedding a DSP Core - Digital signal processor (DSP)

  • DSP for mobile phones, for example, OMAP (Open Multimedia Applications Platform) of Texas Instruments use the effective power dissipation methods of dynamic switching both of power supply voltage and operating frequency of the CPU core.
  • Filtering, noise cancellation, echo elimination, compression and encryption

Embedding a Multi-processor or Dual Core using General Purpose Processors (GPP)

  • Speech signal-compression and coding
  • Signal decoding and decompression

Embedding an Accelerator

  • Accelerate the execution of codes, for example,
    • A floating-point coprocessor accelerates the mathematical operations and
    • Java accelerator accelerates the Java code execution.

Embedding Single purpose processors

  • For Dialing, Modulating, Transmitting. Demodulating and Receiving.
  • Keypad interface and display interface handling.
  • Touch screen Message display and creation, SMS (Short Message Service) and MMS Protocol- stack generation.
  • Pixel coprocessor and CODEC in a digital Camera


  • Embedded processor GPP or ASIP core,
  • Single purpose processing cores or multiple processor cores,
  • A network bus protocol core,
  • An encryption and decryption functions cores,
  • Cores for FFT and Discrete cosine transforms for signal processing applications,
  • Memories

Intellectual Property

  • Programmable logic device and FPGA (Field Programmable Gate Array) cores
  • Other logic and analog units.

IPs in SoC

  • IP - A standard source solution for synthesizing a higher-level component by configuring a core of VLSI circuit or FPGA core available as an Intellectual Property, called (IP).
  • High Level Components with gate level sophistication circuit much above level of counters and registers.
 IP in SOC



  • Designer or designing company holds the copyright for the synthesized design of a higher level component for gate-level implementation of an IP.
  • One might have to pay royalty for every chip shipped. An embedded system may incorporate several IPs.


  • An FPGA consists of a large number of programmable gates on a VLSI chip. There is a set of gates in each FPGA cell, called 'macro cell'.


Use of FPGAs cum Processor Cores

  • FPGA 125136 Logic Cells along with the Four IBM PowerPC processors [Exemplary Application: System witha Data Encryption Engine at 1.5 Gbps].

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